Guideline 04/2020 –Use of location data and contact tracing tools in the context of COVID-19 outbreak
Section 3.2 Recommendations and functional requirements
40 According to the principle of data minimization, among other measures of Data Protection by Design and by Default, the data processed should be reduced to the strict minimum. The application should not collect unrelated or not needed information, which may include civil status, communication identifiers, equipment directory items, messages, call logs, location data, device identifiers, etc.
41 Data broadcasted by applications must only include some unique and pseudonymous identifiers, generated by and specific to the application. Those identifiers must be renewed regularly, at a frequency compatible with the purpose of containing the spread of the virus, and sufficient to limit the risk of identification and of physical tracking of individuals.
42 Implementations for contact tracing can follow a centralized or a decentralized approach. Both should be considered viable options, provided that adequate security measures are in place, each being accompanied by a set of advantages and disadvantages. Thus, the conceptual phase of app development should always include thorough consideration of both concepts carefully weighing up the respective effects on data protection / privacy and the possible impacts on individuals rights.
43 Any server involved in the contact tracing system must only collect the contact history or the pseudonymous identifiers of a user diagnosed as infected as the result of a proper assessment made by health authorities and of a voluntary action of the user. Alternately, the server must keep a list of pseudonymous identifiers of infected users or their contact history only for the time to inform potentially infected users of their exposure, and should not try to identify potentially infected users.
44 Putting in place a global contact tracing methodology including both applications and manual tracing may require additional information to be processed in some cases. In this context, this additional information should remain on the user terminal and only be processed when strictly necessary and with his prior and specific consent.
45 State-of-the-art cryptographic techniques must be implemented to secure the data stored in servers and applications, exchanges between applications and the remote server. Mutual authentication between the application and the server must also be performed.
46 The reporting of users as COVID-19 infected on the application must be subject to proper authorization, for example through a single-use code tied to a pseudonymous identity of the infected person and linked to a test station or health care professional. If confirmation cannot be obtained in a secure manner, no data processing should take place that presumes the validity of the user’s status.
47 The controller, in collaboration witht he public authorities, have to clearly and explicitly inform about the link to download the official national contact tracing app in order to mitigate the risk that individuals use a third-party app.